Category: Habitat

Habitat Creation in RTT Forests


A boa constrictor relaxes on an RTT sign.


Reforestation of our tropical zones is the most effective, inexpensive, and technologically feasible method to arrest the acceleration of atmospheric CO2. This is our primary focus at RTT. We are developing forestry models that are capturing more CO2 per hectare than some science and forestry professionals even thought possible. And we are doing so in a manner that is attractive for owners of degraded land. This fact alone carries important implications for our future climate, as our model is overcoming the historic conundrum of incentivizing landowners to participate in reforestation. In addition to the primary goal of carbon sequestration, there are a number of benefits that tropical reforestation offers. This month, we are focusing on habitat creation. RTT forests play host to numerous species of mammal, reptile, bird, amphibian, and insect. By utilizing a mixed-species model instead of traditional monocultures, RTT is enhancing flora diversity in a way that results in a healthy biome. It stands to reason that a variety of plant life will invite more wildlife,
however the team at RTT is continually surprised at the habitat we are creating. NearlyThe track of a puma, hunting in an RTT forest. all small mammals found in Costa Rica have been witnessed in RTT forests. More exciting is the evidence of some of Costa Rica’s (and the world’s) more elusive species. We have seen tracks of various large cats, including jaguars, which are presumably entering forest plots to hunt for the myriad small animals that RTT forests host. We have also seen tracks, scat, and food leavings of the iconic tapir. papyaWe have even seen evidence of tapirs feeding on the deglupta—a naturalized species to Costa Rica that was first hybridized by RTT Scientist and Founder, Dr. Herster Barres. Another species that is listed on the endangered list is the Great Green Macaw. This magnificent bird is attracted to the seed of the almendro tree – a species found in multiple RTT plots. RTT is attempting to create the most holistic model possible while pursuing its goal to develop the most powerful carbon capturing model in the world. In order to encourage the propagation of wildlife, RTT routinely plants fruit and seed bearing species with the specific purpose of attracting fauna. An anteater climbs a deglupta treePlanting bananas, plantains, papayas, berries, and other fodder does little to improve carbon capture, however we recognize the importance in broadening the habitable zones for Costa Rica’s amazing wildlife. – Greg Powell,

Bananas planted within RTT forests welcome many birds including this aracari—a type of toucan.

Bananas planted within RTT forests welcome many birds including this aracari—a type of toucan.

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Catching Up With Old Wisdom: Our Enduring Connection to Forests

Reforest The Tropics is proud this month to offer an essay by our friend and fellow tree advocate, Richard Higgins. Mr. Higgins is a writer, editor, and public speaker on Thoreau’s lifelong passion for trees. His book, Thoreau and the Language of Trees is due out next year. He is the editor of five books and the co-author of Portfolio Life. – Greg Powell, RTT Director


The discovery of the biochemistry and dynamics of the carbon cycle has made the work of Reforest the Tropics possible. Scientists know how much CO2 new trees absorb from the atmosphere, down to the quantities that different types of trees store in their roots, stems and leaves. While that science is impressive, it is helpful to remember that, long before the facts were in, wise people throughout history intuited the necessity, beneficence and saving qualities of trees.

One was Henry David Thoreau. The decimation of the New England landscape, which peaked about 1850, during his lifetime, angered him. Even the woods around his beloved Walden Pond were ravaged for fire wood during the unusually cold 1850s. “Thank God, they cannot cut down the clouds!” he fumed. Thoreau hated losing woods that he knew, but his anger was the greater because he knew that without trees, nature would wither, and human life would as well. What we now know about trees makes Thoreau look clairvoyant. They were “rivers of sap and woody fiber” flowing “from the atmosphere and emptying into the earth,” he wrote. A century before nurse logs became a concept in forestry, Thoreau called pine trees “nurses” to the oak saplings that take root beneath them. He described trees as “fountains of water” and knew that their decomposition enriched the soil. He knew also knew, from the German botanist Kurt Sprengel, about the transpiration of leaves. “A thin column of smoke curls up from some invisible farmhouse,” Thoreau wrote “as silently and naturally as the vapor exhales from the leaves.” Before the term ecology was coined, Thoreau saw forests as whole landscapes that transcend any public or private boundaries. He urged that they be preserved as such. And despite the deforestation he witnessed, Thoreau had the foresight and faith in nature, to write that “one day they will be planted and nature reinstated to some extent.”

RTT Newsletter, August 2015
Photo: Richard HIggins

Thoreau also knew that trees were essential to the human spirit. “From the forest and wilderness come the tonics and barks which brace mankind,” he wrote in “Walking.” A town is saved, he said, “not more by the righteous men in it, than by the woods and swamps that surround it.” Every tree “sends its fibers forth in search of the Wild,” and in such wildness “is the preservation of the world.” Thoreau was not only the wise person to see these things. “Forests precede civilizations and deserts follow them,” the French diplomat Chateaubriand wrote in 1820. “What we are doing to the forests of the world,” wrote Mahatma Gandhi, “is but a mirror reflection of what we are doing to ourselves and to one another.” And a biblical author didn’t need to know about stomatal pores and chloroplasts to write, in Revelations 22.2, “The leaves of the trees are for the healing of nations.” Looked at this way, scientists should see it as an honor to provide the empirical evidence that these people were right. It’s even a greater honor to turn their words into action, which is just what Reforest the Tropics is doing.

-Richard Higgins

Richard may be contacted at:

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Food Production for RTT Workers

One goal in designing RTT forests is the production of food for workers. During working hours, workers manage the young plantings, weeding and caring for the young forest trees until they can fend for themselves. After normal hours, they are allowed to plant and harvest crops between the rows of trees.

Rows of corn planted between rows of trees in the Triumvirate Carbon-Offset Forest. Photo taken April 24, 2009

Rows of corn planted between rows of trees in the Triumvirate Carbon-Offset Forest. Photo taken April 24, 2009

The crops include corn (shown at right), yucca, cilantro, pineapple, plantains, bananas and papaya.  Some of the latter two plants are left to grow purposely to feed wildlife.

Lester Brown of the Earth Policy Institute pointed out in a recent article that “the biggest threat to global political stability is the potential for food crises in poor countries to cause governments to collapse.  Those crises are brought on by rising demand and ever worsening environmental degradation.”

The RTT Model forests help meet the challenges of climate change and local food scarcity in a small way.

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